The historian, or saga writer, Sturla Thordarson tells about how the men of Greenland undertook to pay tribute, and how, for every man murdered, a fine should be payable to the King whether the dead man was a Norwegian or a Greenlander and whether killed in the settlements or in the districts to which people went for the summer even as far North as under the Pole Star. It seems clear that the settlers made hunting journeys far to the North on the western coast, and records exist of at least one expedition to places on the East coast. The Danish Government naturally presumes that the Norwegian Government, for its part, likewise intends to refrain from any such action. The colonies on the West coast were divided into two districts, a northern and a southern.
The Danish Government naturally presumes that the Norwegian Government, for its part, likewise intends to refrain from any such action. These are the words recorded in the minute by M. What Denmark desired to obtain from Norway was that the latter should do nothing to obstruct the Danish plans in regard to Greenland. The fact that the British Government felt justified in appending to its recognition a reservation in regard to its right to be consulted in case the Danish Government should contemplate alienating this territory, appears rather to point to an opposite conclusion. And piracy might take place either by sea or by land.
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If however the communication made in to the Norwegian Government is examined, it will be found to be more consistent with the view that the Danish desire was to obtain the recognition of an existing sovereignty. He did not even interrogate the accused persons. The instructions of March 2nd, , given by the Danish Minister for Foreign Affairs, contain the following: Similar communications were also made by the Norwegian Government to all the other Powers whom it regarded as being interested.
In my view there has been a good deal of exaggeration on both sides. The note further strongly urged the Danish Government, in the interests of both countries, to do everything in its power to ensure that the Danish 'three years' plan It begins with the following words: Vogt, Judge ad hoc, declare that they are unable to concur in the judgment given by the Court and, availing themselves of the right conferred on them by Article 57 of the Statute, append to the judgment the dissenting opinions which follow. The Danish Government confidently expected that the Norwegian Government would make no difficulty in connection with the settlement of this matter.
It would be going beyond the intention of the Parties - or, at any rate, of one of them - if the agreement resulting from the Ihlen declaration were to be regarded as a complete and final settlement of the Greenland question between Denmark and Norway. Bangladesh's Dacca is Dhaka. Today, the anglicised name forms are often retained for the more well-known persons, like Aristotle for Aristoteles, and Adrian or later Hadrian for Hadrianus.
Ihlen, the Norwegian Minister for Foreign Affairs, there is in existence a record, accepted by both Parties, in the form of notes bearing the initials of M. This Commission wrote to the Ministry of Marine concerning the explorations which it behoved Denmark to undertake in regard to territories, which are in part subject to the Danish State, and in part adjacent to the territories that are subject. Anglicisation or anglicization , see English spelling differences , occasionally anglification, anglifying, englishing , refers to modifications made to foreign words, names and phrases to make them easier to spell, pronounce, or understand in English.
If it took action for this purpose, however, it is most unlikely that on the eve of doing so it would completely change the point of view which it had previously enunciated and proceed upon the footing that it had no right to sovereignty over the uncolonized area and that it had now to acquire sovereignty there for the first time. There is no reason to doubt that this was also the sense in which the Norwegian Minister for Foreign Affairs understood the Danish request. It is by no means clear, and it uses the phrase extension of the care and suzerainty of Denmark to the whole of Greenland [FN1]. But the exact significance of the documents which should demonstrate the exercise of this sovereignty remains somewhat uncertain; moreover, the documents in question are legislative acts, the effective application of which, elsewhere than on the western coast - though it would have been an indispensable requirement under the international law even of that period - has not been sufficiently established. But there is nothing in these replies to indicate that these Governments believed that they were confirming an already existing sovereignty.
It has already been shown see No. On January 6th, , the Norwegian Government replied that, in accordance with the standpoint which it had reserved in its note of July 9th, , Eastern Greenland constituted a terra nullius, and that, consequently, it was fully entitled to invest Norwegian nationals in this territory with police powers in respect of Norwegian nationals and other persons domiciled in Norway. By a series of conventions concluded in and , Russia, Great Britain and Prussia supported Sweden's aspirations. De-anglicisation has become a matter of national pride in some places and especially in regions that were once under colonial rule, where vestiges of colonial domination are a sensitive subject.
One example is the German word Felleisen a backpack , a germanization of the French word valise small suitcase. The Court has definitely adopted the view that there was a historic Danish sovereignty, extending over the whole of Greenland, and exercised, in particular, as early as the XVIIIth century. The Ordinance also prohibited all persons from robbing the Greenlanders or committing any acts of violence against them in any place in Greenland, whether by land or sea. That view is, indeed, confirmed by the subsequent documents, which show that the Norwegian objections were not aimed at the extension of Danish sovereignty, but at an extension of sovereignty involving a corresponding extension of the monopoly; the extension of sovereignty was, therefore, common ground: Denmark's position in Greenland formed the subject of a request addressed by the Danish Government to the Norwegian Government in July , and of a declaration on the part of the latter Government accepted by the Danish Government.
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In my opinion, it is beyond all doubt that what is contemplated here is a future recognition, i. Legislation is one of the most obvious forms of the exercise of sovereign power, and it is clear that the operation of these enactments was not restricted to the limits of the colonies. Denmark's position in Greenland formed the subject of a request addressed by the Danish Government to the Norwegian Government in July , and of a declaration on the part of the latter Government accepted by the Danish Government.
This step led to a Conference between these Powers which held its first meetings in London in July and August These settlements appear to have existed as an independent State for some time, but became tributary to the kingdom of Norway in the XIIIth century. He did not even interrogate the accused persons. But, according to the custom then prevalent in matters of colonization, the sovereignty was in reality restricted, after the second colonization, to certain areas surrounding the factories or stations successively established. In regard to the other Powers, the situation of the Danish Government was different, as it was asking them for declarations which would definitively settle the question. In the course of the negotiations with the United States of America concerning the cession of the Danish West Indies, the Danish Government raised this question in so far as concerned recognition by the United States Government, and it obtained from the latter, simultaneously with the conclusion of the Convention regarding the cession of the islands referred to, a declaration to the effect that the United States would not raise any objection to the extension by the Danish Government of its political and economic interests to the whole of Greenland.
For the purpose of the present argument, the importance of these conventions, with whatever States they have been concluded, is due to the [p52] support which they lend to the Danish argument that Denmark possesses sovereignty over Greenland as a whole. They conclude by requesting the Danish representative to endeavour to obtain French immigrants to the United States of Huguenot or French Canadian background often accommodated those unfamiliar with French pronunciations and spellings by altering their surnames in either of two ways: This claim should, in my view, be rejected, for an unlawful act cannot serve as the basis of an action at law.
What Denmark desired to obtain from Norway was that the latter should do nothing to obstruct the Danish plans in regard to Greenland. A single precedent has been cited: Retrieved from https:
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The Danish Government held that the proposed arrangement would go beyond the limits of the Convention of , and would moreover constitute a recognition of the contention upheld by Norway in the terra nullius theory and would be inconsistent with the fundamental standpoint maintained at that time by Denmark theory of Danish [p42] sovereignty over the whole of Greenland. On the 10th of the same month, the Swedish Minister for Foreign Affairs wrote as follows in instructions addressed to Swedish diplomatic representatives abroad: Even if this interdependence-which, in view of the affirmative reply of the Norwegian Government, in whose name the Minister for Foreign Affairs was speaking, would have created a bilateral engagement - is not held to have been established, it can hardly [p71] be denied that what Denmark was asking of Norway not to make any difficulties in the settlement of the [Greenland] question was equivalent to what she was indicating her readiness to concede in the Spitzbergen question to refrain from opposing the wishes of Norway in regard to the settlement of this question. The text of the American declaration is set out and the instructions go on to say that, having got the American declaration, Denmark proposes also to obtain recognition by other Powers of Danish sovereignty over all Greenland, and the Minister concerned is therefore to ask for official recognition of Danish sovereignty over all Greenland. Hoist referred to the fact that the extraordinary Storting of had, in a most humble address, petitioned His Majesty to take the necessary steps to secure the restitution to the Kingdom of Norway of the Faroe Islands, Iceland and Greenland, pos-sessions which for centuries were an integral part of that kingdom. It therefore follows that the sovereign right in virtue of which the enactments were issued cannot have been restricted to the limits of the colonies.